Organisms likely use visible light because a. a large proportion of the electromagnetic radiation on Earth is light.

Organisms likely use visible light becausea. a large proportion of the electromagnetic radiation on Earth islight.b. radiation with a higher energy than light might damage biologicalmolecules more easily.c. radiation with a lower energy content than light might not haveenough energy to excite electrons.d. radiation with longer wavelengths than light are absorbed bywater and carbon dioxide.e. all of the above2. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?a. DNA can be damaged by ultraviolet radiation.b. The pigment melanin protects plants from excessive damage to their photosynthetic apparatus.c. Shorter wavelengths of radiation are more harmful to organisms than longer wavelengths.d. Human skin cells can be harmed by ultraviolet radiation.e. Visible light contains less energy than ultraviolet radiation.3. Photoheterotrophsa. use light as an energy source.b. are found in protists.c. use carbon dioxide as a carbon source.d. are found in certain groups of plants.e. are NOT found in prokaryotes.4. Chemoautotrophsa. use organic or inorganic substances as an energy source.b. are found in protists.c. use organic substances as a carbon source.d. are found in certain groups of plants.e. are not found in prokaryotes.Principles of Biology I35. what conditions may adaptive radiation occur?a. when islands are colonizedb. after the demise of a successful group of organismsc. after the emergence of new physiological pathwaysd. when organisms move into new adaptive zonese. all of the aboveClimbing plants in tropical forests have a competitive advantage over trees becausea. they grow relatively slowly.b. they have a high amount of supporting structure.c. they have a low amount of leaf biomass.d. they receive a good amount of sunlighte. they are usually parasites supported by trees.Which of the following groups of organisms are decomposers?a. animalsb. fungic. plantsd. algaee. all of the aboveWhich of the following items is NOT associated with monsoons?a. rain shadowb. reversal of wind directionc. adiabatic coolingd. high precipitatione. low air pressureWhich of the following is NOT true about ocean currents?a. b. c. d.e.They move clockwise in the northern hemisphere.They move counter-clockwise in the southern hemisphere.They are partly caused by trade winds and westerlies.They mix water thoroughly, resulting in a uniform water temperature at similar latitudes.They are influenced by the Earth’s rotation.4Biology 20410. Some sea slugs are able to perform photosynthesis. They do this bya. producing their own chlorophyll.b. eating algal cells and moving the cells to the endodermis.c. having a mutualistic association with algae.d. having algal chloroplasts in their endodermis.e. all of the above.11. The total potential energy in a system is calleda. entropy.b. free energy.c. enthalpy.d. exothermic.e. endothermic.12. Under which condition will a reaction be spontaneous?a. when ΔG is positiveb. when ΔH is negativec. when the product(s) will have more free energy than the reactant(s)d. when ΔS is negativee. none of the above13. The binding of a substrate to an enzyme causes a change in the enzyme’s shape. This shape change is known asa. allosteric inhibition.b. activation.c. reversible inhibition.d. induced fit.e. denaturation.14. The part of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate(s) is calleda. an allosteric site.b. an induced-fit.c. a reaction site.d. an active site.e. a cofactor.Principles of Biology I5Use the following figure to answer the next question.15. Which of the following statements is TRUE?a. The figure represents a spontaneous reaction.b. The reactants have more free energy than the products.c. The products have more free energy than the reactants.d. The figure represents an exergonic reaction.e. ΔG is negative.16. Which of the following substances is most difficult to move across a membrane?a. Na+b. O2c. H2Od. glycerol e. CO217. Receptor mediated endocytosisa. b.c. d.moves liquids out of the cell.moves unspecified substances into the cell by forming a pocket inthe plasma membrane. is very specific.involves a proton pump.6Biology 20418. Which of the following does NOT apply to electrochemical gradients?a. There is a difference in the concentration of ions between the twosides of the membrane.b. There is a difference in the electrical charge between the two sidesof the membrane.c. There is a difference in the electrical charge but not in theconcentration of ions between the two sides of the membrane.d. The energy of the gradient can be used for a number of purposes.e. Nerve impulses are based on electrochemical gradients.19. Which of the following is NOT true of symport?a. Two substances move in opposite directions.b. Two substances move in the same direction.c. The diffusion of one substance provides the energy for the transport of a second one.d. Ions are usually involved.e. Amino acids are one type of substance involved.20. A cell needs ________ to obtain unsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids.a. glycoproteinsb. glycerolc. cholesterold. phospholipidse. desaturases21. The role of the oxygen molecules required for aerobic respiration is toa. accept electrons directly from either NADH or FADH2.b. accept the low energy electrons at the end of the electron transport chain.c. form ATP.d. to produce CO2.e. store high energy electrons to pass to complex I of the electron transport chain.Principles of Biology I722. During chemiosmosis, ________ are transferred from NADH and FADH2 to electron acceptor molecules, and the energy released is used to create a(n) ________ gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.a. ATP molecules; ADP moleculeb. water molecules; oxygenc. protons; electrond. ADP molecules; ATP moleculee. electrons; proton23. Which of the following terms would you associate with lactate fermentation?a. NADPHb. glycolysisc. ethanold. citric acid cyclee. electron transport chain24. During the citric acid cycle, each acetyl group entering the cycle yieldsa. four ATP, two NADH, and one FADH2.b. one ATP, two NADH, and four FADH2.c. three ATP, two NADH, and one FADH2.d. one ATP, three NADH, and one FADH2.e. one ATP, two NADH, and three FADH2.25. Which of the following statements concerning decarboxylation reactions is FALSE?a.b. c. d. e.They are one type of general reaction that occurs during aerobic respiration.They involve the removal of two protons and two electrons. They occur as part of the citric acid cycle.They produce CO2 that is then exhaled via breathing.They involve the removal of a carboxyl group (-COOH) from a substrate.8Biology 20426. The genes coding for rubisco are founda. both in the nuclear DNA and in the chloroplast DNA.b. both in the nuclear DNA and the mitochondrial DNA.c. only in the nuclear DNA.d. only in the chloroplast DNA.e. only in the mitochondrial DNA.27. How (exactly) is water split and oxygen released during photosynthesis?a. An energy-rich photon directly provides the energy to split water.b. An enzyme in photosystem I uses the energy of a photon to split water.c. The oxidized form of P680 splits water.d. A proton pump provides the energy to split water in thethylakoid lumen.e. ATP originating from the Calvin cycle splits water.28. Which of the following reactions occur(s) during the Calvin cycle?a. photolysis of waterb. synthesis of NADPHc. synthesis of ATPd. synthesis of sugarse. all of the above29. Reaction centre complexes of the light-dependent reactions contain ________ and ________, which receive energy from ________.a. chlorophyll; antenna complexes; carotenoidsb. accessory pigments; chlorophyll; antenna complexesc. carotenoids; proteins; chlorophylld. proteins; antenna complexes; carotenoidse. chlorophyll; proteins; antenna complexes


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